Research Reports/ Working Papers

Research studies and reports done by CSEI

Since its inception, CSEI has been undertaken different Policy advocacy researches on issues of children and young people from socially excluded communities in accessing Right to Education and decent employment/livelihood opportunities. These studies were done in collaboration with Community- Led Organizations and Networks and were supported by various UN agencies and INGOs. Following are the studies and papers conducted so far.

Quest for Equity: Urban Dalit Women Employees and Entrepreneurs- A study of Hyderabad and Delhi

This study is concerned with the opportunities and challenges experienced by educated urban Dalit women in the contemporary labour market in India. It explores the interplay of caste, class and gender in molding the aspirations, efforts and achievements of Dalit women under the globalization and liberalization reforms of the 21st century. It analyzes caste and gender based exclusion and discrimination in urban employment and entrepreneurship policies and practices. It underscores the relevance of a social and gender justice framework and a rights-based approach to understanding and promoting Dalit women’s’ economic empowerment and social upliftment. This study is the outcome of a participatory process, involving Dalit researchers and activists at different levels and drawing deeply on the perspectives and experiences of educated urban Dalit women.  An underlying motivation of the study is to develop appropriate advocacy and programme strategies to address caste, class and gender based barriers in urban employment and enterprises in line with securing and promoting the rights of educated urban Dalit women in the labour market and the wider society. The study was supported by Justitia et Pax Netherlands and The International Institute of Social Studies (ISS).

Marginalized Children and their Right to Education in Delhi: A study of Five Urban Communities

CSEI took up this study, sponsored by Child Rights and You (CRY), in collaboration with 7 organizations from the Alliance for People’s Rights (APR), which works with marginalized communities across Delhi in the field of education. This was a qualitative study of children from five vulnerable and marginalized urban communities in 11 bastis/areas across seven districts in Delhi, namely Denotified tribal communities (Singhi and Gosai), Muslim children, waste picker children, construction workers’ children and sewage workers’ children. The overall objective was to promote greater equity and inclusion in elementary education in Delhi schools by enhancing the ability of APR partners to strategise community and school-based interventions, and to monitor and advocate the implementation of RtE from an equity and inclusion perspective. This was to be achieved by examining the barriers of children from these five communities faced to access and enjoy school education and taking stock of how schools in Delhi are equipped to ensure that these children enjoy their Right to Education. A framework was thus developed for understanding and examining equity and inclusion in education. The study also proposed a series of recommendation for policy and practical changes to ensure these children’s inclusion in education.

Inclusion of Marginalized Children in Private Unaided Schools Under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009- An Exploratory Study

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009) has a unique provision whereby private unaided schools are required to provide free and compulsory education to children from disadvantaged groups and weaker sections up to 25 percent of the class strength of Grade 1 or pre-school whichever is the starting point. The government has to reimburse the schools an amount equivalent to what the government spends on educating children in its own schools.  This research was carried out in two cities – Bangalore and Delhi, to capture what early starters among the states/cities had been able to achieve and with the idea of showcasing/disseminating workable models for other states/ cities.T he Broad research objectives of the study were to i)review the rules, guidelines, notifications of the appropriate governments related to this provision to assess the extent to which it has been operationalised through administrative measures; ii) examine the administrative structures and processes for the implementation of the provision and its functioning to assess the preparedness of the government to implement the said provision and iii) assess the nature of inclusion under this provision in select private unaided schools. The study captured data on implementation in the academic year 2012-13.  The study was done in collaboration with TISS and Azim Premji Foundation and was supported by OXFAM India.

25% is Our Right: Examining Sc/ST Exclusion Through Budgets in School Education: Implementation of the Scheduled Caste Sub Plan and Tribal Sub Plan by the Centre Bihar and Jharkhand Governments

This study, part of the I-NGO Partnership Agreement Programme (IPAP), examines school education planning and budgeting under the Scheduled Castes Sub Plan and Tribal Sub Plan for Dalit and Adivasi children at the Central Government level (Department for School education and Literacy), as well as in Bihar and Jharkhand (Education Departments). Focus lies on analysis of the overall budget allocations and expenditures in the school education sector, as well as for three schemes that receive some of the highest allocations: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan and Navodaya vidyalaya Samiti. These are examined in relation to the needs of Dalit and Adivasi children, as detailed through consultations with students and Civil Society Organizations from the two communities. The envisaged outcomes are: to have a detailed understanding of the education planning process from state downwards to the district levels;  to expose the lack of information and planning on SCSP and TSP, leading to notional allocations and expenditures; to highlight the gap between education schemes and education needs of Dalit and Adivasi students; and to develop a set of concrete recommendations at the policy level as well as specific basket of schemes.

Social Identity of Children: How does it matter in Schooling? – An Exploratory Study of Elementary Schools in Bihar

This study, collaboration with National Dalit Movement for Justice- National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights (NDMJ-NCDHR) and sponsored by Save the Children, aimed to take the debates forward by providing insights in to what goes on inside classrooms in terms of teaching learning practices and the experiences of marginalized Dalit and Muslim children interacting with teachers and other students in the classrooms in Bihar. The specific objectives were to identify the ways in which social identity affects the teacher-student relationship and relationships with peers, impacts on teaching learning processes and on participation in co-curricular activities. The study thus explored how Dalit and Muslim children in Bihar experience schooling- ‘their perceptions about schooling and about them in schooling’, and suggested how various processes in schooling and their experiences in learning may be shaped their identities.

Musahar  (Manjhi) Children in Bihar: Barriers and Opportunities in enjoying the Right to Education

The twenty –one lakh plus Manjhi community in Bihar is third largest among Dalit communities in the state and constitutes one of the poorest communities in the state as well as at the national level. In 2001, only about 9.8% of the children in 5-14 years age group went to school and literacy levels among women just about 3%.  The study analyzed the different sub groups within the community and their access to education, the current state programmes and their implementation to promote education and the role of Civil Society Organizations in promoting education among them. An objective of the study was also to identify educated young people from within the community that can work towards enhancing equitable access to education.   The study was supported by New Education Group: Foundation for Innovations in Education (NEG-FIRE) and is being followed up with a project to understand and develop how learning can be enhanced within the community through engaging with young people and the community as a whole.

UNICEF Paper on Strategies and Roadmap to Promote Equity-Inclusion in Elementary Education under RtE

CSEI has undertaken a broad mapping of the status of exclusion-inclusion among key excluded communities of children vis-à-vis education today, namely Dalits, Adivasis, Muslims, Children in the North – East, Urban Deprived and DNT-NT, with gender and disability as cross- cutting factors. This is part of a paper being developed for UNICEF on providing a road map for how organizations such as UNICEF and Civil Society Organizations can work towards promoting equity and inclusion among socially excluded children. In order to understand the reality on the ground, CSEI organized series of consultations in different regions of the country, focusing on different groups of socially excluded children on which less information is know about their issues in education: These consultations across the country led to a deepened understanding of the obstacles of different excluded children face in education today, as well as policy/ programme gaps and strategies CSOs have evolved to overcome such gaps.

Making Growth Just and Inclusive: Partnering Community Led Organizations of the Marginalized

CSEI  undertook an in-depth study of 175 civil society organizations (CSOs) led by Adivasi, Dalit and Muslim women and men in Nine states of India- Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, which was supported by UNDP.  The study analyzed the context, leadership, organizational make-up, and engagement of organizations led by the marginalized communities in an attempt to map their current and potential roles in enhancing the stake-hold of marginalized communities in development. Embedded within their communities in their context, concerns and knowledge these organizations are placed advantageously for translating the national goals of ‘faster, more inclusive and sustainable development’ goals of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. The study has evolved the term Community Led Organisations (CLOs) to highlight their specific context and unique possibilities in contributing to the national goals and specifically address the barriers of persistently excluded communities in development.

Given the historical and deep-seated social exclusion that these communities face with the resultant poverty, low human development indicators and low participation in decision-making forums, CLOs from the same communities can play a vital role in their development even in the worst-off sub-groups and remote unreached areas. The study highlights the potential of these CLOs from the marginalized communities, their capacity needs and recommends strategies for enhancing their stakes with the state and other development agencies.

The study was done in two phases, covering seven states in the first phase in 2010-11 and Assam and Maharashtra in 2014. 1050 CLOs were identified across the nine states through available secondary information of the existing NGOs’ network lists, personal visits, Google search and snowballing techniques. Further, 175 CLOs were finalized to reflect the population/gender distribution and diverse activities undertaken by these CLOs in the nine states. 20 CLOs were studied from each state except Chhattisgarh, where 15 were studied. Field investigators collected data through ‘structured interviews’ with the chief functionaries (CFs). In May 2011, the preliminary findings from seven states were shared in a one-day consultation with NGOs/INGOs and UN agencies along with personal testimonies by the CFs, elaborating the barriers and constraints and chalking out the way forward.

Training Manual on Safety and Security in Schools: with special focus on marginalized girls

It is a research based Training manual evolved with the support of Care India for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan , Uttar Pradesh. Major objective of this manual is to understand, examine and analyze child abuse and child right violation in education system as a whole, particularly in elementary schooling in the context of universalizing free and compulsory education, and to promote safety and security through evolving and implementing preventive measures along with appropriate Grievance Redressal Mechanism.  Specific objectives are to create guidance cum reference material for the stakeholders in education system to promote safety and security of children, Analyze the issues of school going boys and girls with special focus on girls from Dalit, Adivasi and Muslim communities, understand the discriminatory practices and emotional harassment of children in the education system and the possible strategies to address it, understand the current mechanism of the state to ensure safe, secure and child friendly schooling and Support government in implementing a model safe and secure schooling manual as well as encouraging other states also for the same. Two panchayats out of these 3 districts (Balrampur, Bahraich and Faizabad), including 6 schools, were selected for the study.

 Exclusion-Equity-Social Inclusion under the UPA Government: Overview for SC, ST and Muslim communities

This paper, a consultancy study for Wada Na Thodo Abhiyan,  reviews the major legislations, policies and programmes undertaken during the UPA I&II period to promote development among Dalits, Tribals and Muslims who together constitute almost 40% of our population and are disproportionately represented among poor and marginalised populations.  It analyses how relevant they have been in addressing the social exclusion faced by these communities or promoting equity and social inclusion. Understandably the paper does not attempt to be comprehensive, given the vastness, diversity and complexity to even map these communities, but reviews some of the more prominent legislations, policies and provisions during this time that has influence on these communities, their current status and future prospects. An important dimension in this paper is review of the implementation in a few specific cases. The paper will help draw attention to the relevant approach and implementation essential to promote a ‘faster, more inclusive and sustainable growth’ for the majority of the population that are currently deprived and vulnerable.

 LITERACY FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: A Review of Total Literacy Programmes

The report was prepared for the High level Committee of Status of Women in India in 2014. This paper reviews how women in general and those from marginalized communities have engaged with, accessed and enhanced their lives through the literacy programmes.